Hiking. Tips for beginners
Many unfamiliar with the specifics of the tourism people think that the hike is a fire, the tantalizing smells of simple soup, delicious with nothing on the light, songs to morning, fantastic nature around and an incredible peace in her heart.
Yes, that’s true. However, with all that you need to know that the first access to the forest is quite risky and expensive. Here on the “maybe” hope does not.
First of all, think about it: why did you decide to do tourism? What are the motives in the first place? Just to escape, to get away from some family problems, to get some fresh air, in the end, or to discover a fundamentally different type of worldview, to join the secrets of nature, to find new friends and become part of a huge community of tourists? Any answer is suitable, of course, but it’s one thing if you just decided to get out with family and friends for a few hours in nature, and quite another — if you and your family loves camping, if you want to constantly feed off the forest, its smells and sounds.
So you’re going camping. Unless you have nothing but the desire and, perhaps, friends who are struggling calling you, excitedly talking about the virtues of camp life. Friends, by the way, don’t always know how to describe the situation and tell you about everything you will need in transit and at the location. How to organize a camping trip?
Before you go, can not hurt to familiarize yourself with the terrain of your future traveling with the help of the Internet network can be found and developed Hiking routes, and descriptions of interesting places, and the reviews of those who have been there before you.
Beginners should not be put in front of an important task — for a start you can go to a small “hike of the day.” After all, not accustomed to physical activity of the citizens can be quite difficult to overcome every day at 15-20 miles — it is, by the way, max for beginners — and even carrying backpacks weighing shall be not more than 15 kg for men and less for women. The optimum speed of movement of beginners on level ground is an average of 3.5 kilometers per hour.
In order to stay successful, it is desirable that the tour group was homogeneous, or interests, or age, or worldview. The minimum number of members of a tour group — 3-4 people (1 family), the maximum not more than 15 persons (4 — 5 families).
Before going it is necessary to define duties — the group must be leader, preferably the most experienced traveler, who enjoys credibility with a majority of its members, as well as a doctor — not necessarily professional, but the goth, who, if necessary, will be able to provide first aid.
Each member of the tour group should be responsible for a certain area of the organization of the campaign. You can also assign a Hiking photographer and chronicler — a person who during the campaign will record their impressions, then they are so fun to read! Going camping, it is necessary to warn someone who stays on the “mainland” where you going, how long will the campaign last and how many people in the group. Because the coverage of most mobile operators is forest, wetlands, is to take a mobile phone. To extend their “combat capability” of a long hike, you can either take a spare charged battery or use the phone at a time, turning off all others for savings. It is also better to specify in advance the time of connection with family.
What is needed in the hike?
The backpack design is very simple — the top flap, straps, a sling — cinch backpack horizontally, side ties — cinch backpack at sides, waist belt additionally secures the backpack on the belt.
For beginners suitable model for simple hikes, for experienced — more complex models: on their outer surface sewn with many pockets and flaps for attachment of special tools. For short trips on the nature of the suit cracking a backpack instead of external linkage on the surface sewn roomy pockets where you can put any small things from a knife to sunblock.
First determine the volume of the future backpack: it is measured in liters. For day trips walks fit model with a volume of 30-40 liters. To exit for a few days for 50 — 60 liters. If the campaign will last for a long time and with a need to carry clothes, food, gear, etc., useful to the expedition backpack with a capacity of at least 70-90 litres with the back-friendly padded lining. Then your back will not be tired even after several kilometers of walking speed.
A backpack is better to choose dark colors because frequent washing reduces its water resistance. The backpack should be adapted to your figure, but must do it when it is fully assembled, as when empty it fits completely different.
Due to the fact that the backpacks have a polyurethane strip and used other high-tech materials and impregnation, they cannot be washed in a washing machine. The backpack should be brushing in a dry form, and occasionally, if necessary, wipe with a damp cloth, do not use intense cleaners.
By the way, during a campaign can be the most various breakages of tourist equipment, which you should be prepared. Some damage to equipment can complicate your movement and even force you to abandon the planned route that are not for the better will change your impression about the campaign. To as quickly as possible and better to eliminate breakage, it is necessary to have a repair kit, which should depend on the specifics of the campaign.
So, what parts are needed for the backpack? This is, firstly, a nylon thread with a needle, and secondly, cord, nylon tape, and finally snap the latch and buckle. The latter most often fail when jerking, especially at low temperatures, because the strength of the plastic declines, and it is relatively fragile. You can also grab funds to care for the backpack: – brush and water-repellent impregnation. Many manufacturers produce tourist equipment ready sets of spare parts, so it is possible not to suffer searches of the individual components, and buy the entire repair kit as a whole.
Tourist mats polyurethane
In the summer you can take one big Mat, but if you decide to go camping in cold weather — two. On these mats You will sleep. Inflatable mattresses, mats, blankets is an additional burden and a luxury, as practical benefit from them whatsoever.
This Mat can make your own out of an old large Mat, cut from it a square of the desired size. On the square parallel to each other is done two cuts at a distance of 5 cm from the edge on opposite sides. These slits stretched wide elastic according to your size, and its ends are sewn together. Turns out very comfortable, individual “portable high chair” which you will never be cold to sit and with the help of which you will never stain your pants.
On sale is a very large selection of sleeping bags, and they are all in principle suitable, the choice depends on the willingness and the amount that you can afford to pay.
The only note: sleeping bag best to buy two or three-layered (even in the summer because the nights are still cold) and well quilted, because otherwise he will fall down.
Insulation for sleeping bags can be natural or artificial. Natural feathers of waterfowl — lightweight, well compressed and then fully recovers its volume, also it is a very good insulator. Minus — it is very hygroscopic, dries long. Sleeping bags with synthetic insulation is a lot easier to wash and dry, they, unlike wool, does not rot and is absolutely not hygroscopic. Besides, they are much cheaper.
Choose sleeping bags with fused (or they are called “weld”) the seam in contrast to the usual stitches, they are not let out heat.
Map and 1 — 2 compass
For pedestrian travel, it is better to take a map with a small scale: 1 cm: 1 km. to Acquire such cards and, of course, compasses can be in the shops hunting and fishing.
Will certainly come in handy as fuel, take also and alcohol medical — the last is better not to drink because it dries the body. Except that you can use it to prevent colds in small portions into hot tea.
Towel, soap, toothpaste and brush, toilet paper. Because all that stuff you have to carry, it is better to take a small package, and shampoos in disposable packets.
Matches, notebook, pen, mosquito repellant, axe, flashlight, candles…
Here everything is standard: a mug, a spoon, a bowl — each. It is assumed that you are unlikely to take the Seversky porcelain, so will just say that along with rich enamel ware for tourists is now available utensils made of superfine stainless steel with ebony handles and heat-resistant plastic.
And, of course, all the bowlers. Classic travel set consists of two pots (smaller meals, use a large tea), and small pans. There are pots, a lid which can be used as a frying pan. If you are going Hiking, it is best to bring aluminum pots, cast iron is quite heavy. Hang the pots, or on a special tripod, or if do without it — hang using a self-made hooks (piece electrode arch with an S) on a conventional wooden stick found in the woods.
To remove the kettles from the fire.
A length of 10-20 meters — you can take a plain, of linen, which is suitable for a romantic ferry across the turbulent river, and banal drying clothes.
Count how many products to take with you, it is worth considering the size of the group and the probable amount of preparation of hot food during the campaign.
As a rule, in a campaign to prepare twice a day — Breakfast and dinner, which is the most satisfying. You can have lunch and “dry rations”.
A variety of cereals, sugar, tea, salt is better to carry in packages that can break, and in plastic boxes. Should not bring food in glass containers (it’s heavy and fragile), as well as perishable. The potatoes are usually in the campaign boiled, and used only for soups — too hard to carry him. The bread you can buy in the road.
For her choice there are 4 main criteria:
• how will you use your tent for family outings or longer hikes;
• number of beds you need. Note that, as a rule, the number of places indicated on the package, provides an additional place for things;
• easy installation (be sure to try to assemble a tent by yourself before you go Hiking);
• reliability, quality and weight of the materials from which made the tent.
Almost all the tents have two types of designs:
“Hemisphere” (or “dome”) — two skeleton arcs, intersecting in the center of the dome tent.
“Half-roll” (or “tunnel” tent) represents two (or more) semi-circular arcs, directed ends down, located parallel to each other, between which is stretched an awning.
Tent-type “dome”, as a rule, easier to install, but less roomy. “Half-roll” difficult to establish, but to live in it comfortably. Please note that the tent must be accompanied by instructions but installation.
If you are going to go camping regularly, the tent can not buy, but make sure you know whether there will be a place for you in the tent one of your friends. If you have seriously decided to become tourists, it is a tent it is better to buy the following configuration: frame, double (of course, if there are two or three), with extra space for backpacks and shoes.
Colors do not matter, but keep in mind that tent and especially the awning to wash is not recommended, therefore, choosing a “forest hut”, pay special attention to the color of the mosquito net at the entrance. Often it can be white or other colors brand, and zipper are arranged so that, when You go inside, the grid is inevitable, even for a few seconds is on the ground and instantly gets dirty. You have two options: either looking for a mesh of dark color, or look that the zipper is opened so that the grid remained on the weight.
The floor of tent is usually plastic. When it rains, it protects you from the “water treatment”, but the side of the tent were covered with polyethylene as high as possible (15-20 cm), then you will be able to “sleep peacefully” and not risk waking up in a cold puddle.
You’ll find them in large numbers in any tourist shop. Can choose one that you like best. The main thing that it was long enough to completely cover your hands and do not interfere with walking.
Besides the fact that you put on, you definitely need to take something with you. First, warm sweater in case of a sudden cold snap and the usual evening outfit; second, if it is assumed that it might rain or you will have to Ford the river, a few spare pairs of socks.
Requirements for clothing are quite strict: warm, comfortable, does not prevent to go, not afraid to get dirty, to break or simply lose.
In summer, the best jeans, sneakers, a turtleneck, a two of a warm sweater, windbreaker, raincoat. As well as shorts, a bathing suit, a sun hat or cap, 1-2 t-shirts, handkerchiefs, sunglasses, sweater.
Fall is much more serious: the same jeans, but better rubber boots (low), turtleneck, sweater, windbreaker or jacket (warmer!) and definitely warm clothes and more lightweight shoes.
Winter we don’t consider here, since in winter hikes are special winter tent with a stove for 10 or more people in them sometimes so hot that you can sleep in a t-shirt.
Be sure to bring 2-3 pairs of socks, in which, to prevent rubbing of corns, in a campaign it is better to go even in the heat.
As a rule, the group agrees in advance about what supplies you need to take everyone, but if for some reason there was no understanding, there is the so-called standard set of tourist: stew, bread, pasta or rice and water. If you go for one night, the best — 2 cans of corned beef, a packet of pasta or rice, a loaf of black bread, a bottle of alcohol and a suitable two-liter bottle of water. Everything else is at your request and by common decision of the group.
Personal belongings, documents, money, charged cell phone.
All this is necessary, but in the forest there are many “gotchas”. Things you can lose, water, drop, crush in the dark. Therefore, the main rule of the tourist: as soon as came in and put up a tent — all no longer needed things add up there and get them just before leaving.
Collecting things in a campaign, you should perform a difficult task: to take all necessary and anything superfluous. So some things may be needed or not. For example, a fishing pole and tackle (if we take only the most necessary), the ball, the guitar — it’s worth taking only when someone really knows how to play, otherwise the tool is extra ballast. Watch, mobile phone, a radio, a camera can be and not all members of the group.
How to collect the backpacks?
The collection of backpack, at first glance, it seems a trifling matter. In fact, here’s a knack to all your stuff fit in it and make it blow up in different directions.
So, we begin to collect the backpack…
The first thing we put in the rug. Mat it is best to shoot around the side walls of the backpack. So it will occupy much less space, and the shape of the bag will be symmetrical. Then, at the bottom of the backpack put a sleeping bag in case. Between him and spread out the Mat should be enough space for tents. Her backpack is the best bet. Thanks to the posts, it looks neat and takes up little space.
You put main Luggage.
You can then put all in order: clothing, food, utensils. Necessities it is best to not put inside of the backpack, and the upper pocket flap. This primarily concerns raincoat-rain cover and individual front seats. After everything in my backpack is Packed, it should be fully online and in advance to try on so that you have enough time to pull the webbing belt so that you feel comfortable to go through with this burden any distance.
Put on a backpack and walk around the room. If after a few minutes you do not start to whine back, numb feet or sore neck — you did the right thing. If you feel discomfort, try to determine what it involves, and tighten (or loosen) the straps that get in the way.
You are completely ready and can safely hit the road, because in your backpack everything you need in order not to suffer the inconvenience and to fully enjoy the wonderful forest air! Good luck to you!
Possible risk factors in Hiking
Harmful factors in tourism with the active way of movement can be the following:
It can occur as a result of moving objects, difficult terrain, shear rock (avalanches, mudflows, rockfalls). Can also affect her adverse ergonomic characteristics used tourist equipment and inventory, entailing a trauma (uncomfortable shoes — at first glance, of course, a trifle, but grated corn
can be a huge problem), dangerous atmospheric phenomena (atmospheric electricity, lightning, etc.).
The impact of the environment
It is due to elevated and lowered temperatures, humidity and mobility of air, sharp pressure drops. You should try to choose a favorable time of day and year for a hike, take into account the weather. And, of course, in no case do not skimp on gear.
This risk factor, alas, is almost always due to human action. Its exclusion is achieved by strict observance of fire safety rules.
These pathogenic microorganisms and their waste products, poisonous plants and reptiles, insects and animals that carry infectious diseases, causing burns, allergic and other toxic reactions. Strict hygiene when cooking, boiling water, training on first aid in case of bite of poisonous snakes and for the prevention of bites encephalitis ticks.
It is primarily the physical and psychological load. Elimination or reduction of these risk factors is achieved rational construction the schedule of the route and ensuring a relaxing stay.
A lot of them — primarily this can be attributed to emergency situations (including those associated with the maintenance of public order in the area of tourist services).
Safety rules in the campaign
Not to make organized recreation in a mess then search its members by the rescue services during the campaign should adhere to the discipline and regime: 7-8 hours — Wake up, cook Breakfast, 13 hours halt for lunch, in 18 hours — stop, setting up tents, cooking dinner.
In the forest it is necessary to move around, maintaining a distance of about 1.5 meter, so as not to lose going for your designated branch. In order to avoid injuries in various natural obstacles, it is better not to attack, to cross or bypass them. During a thunderstorm or heavy rain is better to stop.
You can camp near the water you need, but if you have doubts about its quality before use should be to throw in a few crystals of potassium permanganate. Stay for the night better away from Railways, roads, power lines, questionable trees, settlements can always be inquisitive locals, sometimes not quite sober, that “itch” to get acquainted with you closer. Generally, to prevent unnecessary problems contacts with the local population is minimized. To build a fire should be no closer than 5 meters from the tents, previously overlaid it with stones, then be sure to fill in fire with water. Debris burn, cans of pre-roasted at the stake and then buried.
If no alcohol outdoor recreation, you can’t imagine to use it only in the evening and in no case — not in the morning.
And by the way — pick up after yourself in nature! Do not abuse finally those places where others do not have time to litter. So you will contribute to the preservation of clean environment.